Elba is a village in Howard County, Nebraska, United States. Elba was platted in 1882 when the Union Pacific Railroad was extended to that point. A meander of the river nearby was thought to resemble an elbow, hence the name Elba. Elba was incorporated as a village in 1886. As of the census of 2010, there were 215 people, 98 households, and 55 families residing in the village.